Doberman pinscher - Origin, Traits and Care

Doberman pinscher: find out what this animal is like, its physical characteristics, character, behavior, etc. The Doberman, also known as the Doberman Pinscher or...

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The Doberman, also known as the Doberman Pinscher or Dobermann, is an elegant, muscular and powerful dog. With a compact and powerful body, the Doberman has captured the hearts of many people for many years. However, due to the stigma suffered by the breed, it is also one of the most feared dogs. Fortunately, there are more and more people who decide to educate themselves in order to properly train their dog and thus prove that the Doberman can also be an excellent companion dog.

This canine breed is also characterized by its enormous intelligence and sensitivity, which is why positive training is essential to guarantee its well-being and thus establish a strong bond between the dog and the guardian. If you are thinking of adopting a Doberman pinsher, you have come to the right place, since in this article from PlanèteAnimal we will tell you everything you need to know about the characteristics of the Doberman!


  • Europe
  • Germany

FCI Nomenclature

  • Group II

Physical Characteristics

  • End
  • Muscular
  • Lying
  • Short ears


  • Large


  • 70-80

Adult Weight

  • 25-45

Life expectancy

  • 12-14

Recommended physical activity

  • High


  • Balanced
  • Very loyal
  • Smart
  • Active

Ideal for

  • Apartment
  • House
  • Walking
  • The guard
  • Therapy
  • Sports


  • Muzzle
  • Harness

Recommended climate

  • Temperate

Hair type

  • Short
  • Smooth
  • End
  • Dry

Origin of the Doberman pinscher

" The origin of this breed is relatively recent. Friederich Louis Dobermann, born January 2, 1834 and died June 9, 1894, is the creator of this dog and the reason why the breed is called Dobermann in German. Dobermann was a tax collector who also worked part-time capturing dogs for the kennel. Since he had to move around in different places, some of them unsafe, Dobermann decided to create a breed of dog that would be able to protect him and have a good relationship with his guardians. It is not known for certain which breeds were involved in the creation of the Doberman, but it is believed that dogs called butcher dogs, very similar to Rottweilers, were used.The Doberman is also known to be related to Rottweilers and Beaucerons."

Initially the breed was known as the Doberman Pinscher, but over time the second word fell into disuse so it is now known simply as the Doberman. Once Friederich Louis Dobermann started crossing dogs to obtain the breed, he decided to start his Doberman breeding in the 1870s. Given his qualities, the Doberman was very popular as a guard and protection dog. Likewise, he has been extensively trained to serve as a police dog and to perform work in the military. Currently, the breed has lost that popularity and it is no longer so common to see these dogs in the divisions of the armed forces. However, the Doberman remains a popular dog in civilian society and retains the skills that once made them such a sought-after dog in law enforcement.

Characteristics of the Doberman pinscher

One of the most noticeable characteristics of the Doberman pinsher that you notice as soon as you see it is that it is an elegant dog. It is large in size, with a height at the withers of 68-72 cm in males and 63-68 cm in females. As for the weight, it is about 40-45 kg in males and 32-35 kg in females.

The head is wedge-shaped seen from above, elegant and thin and it should not give the impression of being bulky. The Stop is poorly defined, but obvious. The nose, wider than round, must have large nostrils. In black dogs it should be black, while in brown dogs it should be lighter in color. The Doberman's muzzle is well developed and deep and it has a mouth opening that almost reaches the molars. Its scissor bite is very powerful.

" His eyes are medium sized and oval. They should be dark, but eyes of slightly lighter shades are allowed in brown dogs.His eyelids are well attached and the conjunctiva of the eye is not visible. In the past, the Doberman&39;s ears and tail were amputated when the dog was still a few months old puppy. Today, this practice is banned in many countries because it is cruel and unnecessary. In addition, these amputations seriously damage the dog&39;s relationship with the environment and other dogs, as we explain in this other article: Why should dogs&39; ears and tails not be cut?. Thus, the full ears of the Doberman are of medium size and they fall towards the cheeks."

His body is compact, muscular and powerful and it allows the dog to move at breakneck speed in very small spaces. This ability favors the work of dogs trained for attack and protection. His back is short and muscular. His chest is wide and deep. Its legs are also muscular and are in proportion with the rest of the body.

His tail, naturally long, is tied high and slightly curved, fine and ends in a point. As we have already pointed out, its amputation is totally prohibited. In addition, official organizations, such as the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), penalize the amputation of ears and tails.

Doberman pinscher colors

The Doberman's coat is single-layered and is characterized by being short, harsh and dense. Its hair, evenly distributed all over the body, is smooth and close to the body. The colors accepted by the FCI are black and dark brown, both with clean, crisp rust-red colored markings. These marks are usually present on the eyebrows, muzzle, cheeks, throat, chest, feet and thighs, mainly.

Thus, the brown Doberman and the black Doberman are accepted. However, the white Doberman is not.In general, when a specimen is born with this coloration on its coat, it indicates that we are dealing with an albino dog. In this article, we tell you more about albinism in dogs: "Doberman albino - Characteristics and care" .

According to the FCI, there is only the described Doberman dog, however, the American Kennel Club records the existence of the European and American Doberman.

Doberman pinscher character

The Doberman Pinscher is one of the smartest dogs. He is particularly friendly and peaceful, despite the fact that on many occasions his serious appearance may say otherwise. In general, the Doberman's temperament is moderate and does not tend to be overly excited.

Another of the remarkable characteristics of this breed is that it is a dog very dependent on its family, so it is not suitable if we spend most of the day outside or if we cannot give him the care he deserves to be happy.Although it is a friendly dog with its own, the Doberman is somewhat wary of strangers, so it is advisable to socialize it properly from an early age. This distrust does not make him a dangerous dog, but it helps to make him a good guardian. Of course, it must be stressed that this dog or any dog should not be adopted for the sole purpose of leaving it alone on a property to protect it, as they all need the company of their human companions.

This breed learns quickly and easily, so it's not difficult to train a Doberman dog. This breed's ability to train becomes evident when considering the various occupations it has performed and successfully occupied: tracking dogs, air traffic dogs, guard dogs, search dogs and rescue, therapy dogs, assistance dogs and many other professions. However, it is on a daily basis that the character of the Doberman will really surprise us, because it is an excellent companion.He is a sweet, affectionate, sensitive and very intelligent dog.

Doberman pinscher care

Although they need lots of exercise, these dogs can adapt to apartment living if they take long daily walks and you play with them. Despite this, they are dogs that will be better off if they have a garden where they can run around and have fun. In fact, many of the behavioral problems are primarily due to lack of physical and mental exercise.

" However, the Doberman is not an outdoor dog. With a low ability to withstand extreme cold, the Doberman needs a suitable place to sleep and rest. If he sleeps in the garden, he needs a very well-designed and draft-free doghouse. It is not recommended to let your Doberman sleep outside if it is cold."

Also, the physical stimulation of the Doberman will not be enough, because he will also need mental stimulation to help him get rid of the stress he accumulates. The different intelligence games will help us work with him on this essential aspect.

Finally, it is important to add the care of the Doberman referring to his coat, since, although he regularly loses hair, weekly brushing will be more than enough. Of course, during shedding seasons, which are usually spring and fall, the frequency can be increased to two or three weekly brushings. As for the bath, you will only have to wash it when it is really dirty.

Remember that the Doberman dog is considered a potentially dangerous dog in various countries. Getting him used to the muzzle in his youth will be essential so that he does not have problems in adulthood.

Doberman pinscher education

" The Doberman is a very intelligent dog, so he will need a good education. You&39;ll need to start with socialization, a process where you teach your dog to interact with different people, animals, objects, and environments.Socialization prevents the development of fear-related behaviors as adults. Actively working on this process will be very important when it is small, but it is also possible to socialize an older dog, discover it: How to socialize an adult dog?."

Still in his youth, we will start working on the basic training commands and we will practice them in different situations, always using positive reinforcement. The use of punishment collars or punishment-based training techniques can lead to serious behavioral problems in this highly sensitive dog, so they should be avoided at all costs.

Even as an adult, the Doberman must continue to practice obedience consistently. The variety of their upbringing and training will foster positive and he althy attitudes.

Doberman pinscher he alth

The Dobermann is generally a very he althy dog, but they can be prone to spinal problems, especially in the cervical area, gastric torsion, hip dysplasia and heart problems .To ensure that you have a he althy dog, the ideal is to take him to the vet every 6 months for check-ups.

You will have to strictly follow his vaccination schedule, as well as that of deworming: monthly external and quarterly internal. Likewise, it is important to take care of your diet to avoid overweight and also to maintain good hygiene of the eyes, teeth and ears. Good care will make our Doberman dog he althy and happy for a long time. The life expectancy of the Doberman is around 10-13 years.

Where to adopt a Doberman pinscher?

" Unfortunately, it is a dog that is still used today for hunting, dog fighting or protecting the territory, so it suffers from abandonment when its guardians deem it unsuitable for work. For this reason, it is possible to easily find Doberman pinschers for adoption in almost any SPA in the country.Likewise, there are associations dedicated to rescuing abandoned dogs of this breed, such as SOS Dobermann. Likewise, there are many crossbred dogs that come from Doberman crosses with other dogs that are also worth adopting, because what really matters is not whether or not they are breeds, but rather that they adapt to our way of life in order to provide them with all the care you need."

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